Ericsson AXE 10 / 810 Exchange  - Switching & Carrier Equipment

The evolution of AXE so far, and its continued evolution into the 21-st century, reflects the changing needs of the information world. The communications industry is currently in a state of transition with many new developments introducing opportunities and challenges for both equipment suppliers and network operators.

Deregulation of the market has resulted in the entry of new players, both network operators and service providers who are competing with the established operators. Major developments in the standardization field have resulted in increased competition between manufacturers with a resultant reduction in costs to network operators and end users.

Today’s communications networks, which previously only supported voice traffic, now also support data, Internet and multimedia traffic. Subscribers are demanding new services, increased mobility and higher bandwidth in the access network. Operators are linking together to form global companies providing worldwide-customized services. Subscriber mobility is now a key feature of communications.

This advance has been
made possible by the successful implementation of second generation mobile cellular communications systems, such as the global system for mobile communications (GSM), the digital advanced mobile phone system (D-AMPS) and the personal digital cellular (PDC). Third generation systems development will provide a worldwide mobile communications network utilizing both land and satellite technologies.

AXE 810 is the name of the AXE version that will be available to the market at the beginning of 2001. AXE 810 is based on a new type of subrack called GEM. Many devices, for example the group switch, is located in this subrack.

Some devices have not been changed to the new GEM hardware and will be located in the GDM subrack available in AXE with hardware version 1.3 and 1.4. However, also some of the GDM based hardware is updated toward smaller footprint and larger capacity.

The figure below shows an example of an AXE 810 node.

                                Front view                                                       Rear view

© Ericsson
 Ericsson AXE BSC/TRC 8 000 Erlang ~ 2000 TRX

State of the art

AXE is a state-of-the-art communication platform comprising a
powerful set of revenue-generating and cost-reducing features, a cornerstone in the realization of the emerging multi-service and 3G networks.

AXE is designed to meet the signaling and switching standards recommended by ITU, ETSI and ANSI as well as national standards such as those in China and Japan.

The main features of AXE are as follows:

  • AXE modularity
  • Meeting network operators requirements
  • AXE as a telecommunications node


All aspects of the new version of AXE will be described in this
document. This chapter tries to capture the most important changes and their impact on the total system performance.

Changes in APZ
  • New Central Processor
    • There is a new CP developed called APZ 212 33 with 70% more capacity than APZ 212 30. The processor is also prepared for a new type of inter-processor network.
  • New Regional Processors
    • All types of regional processors gets more capacity in less space. This is valid for RPG, RPP and RP.
  • New APG, Adjunct Processor Group
    • A new more powerful adjunct processor is developed (APG40). This means more storage capacity, faster reloading and more processing capacity for a number ofapplications.

Changes in APT
  • A new GEM subrack
    • The GEM subrack (Generic Ericsson Magazine) can house the group switch and a large number of boards such as ET155, Transceivers and Echo Cancellers.
  • A new Group Switch
    • A new high-capacity group switch with distributed architecture is included. The switch is true non-blocking switch with a maximum capacity of 512k.
  • One-board ET155
    • An ET155 is now available in one-board solution decreasing the size of the exchange significantly. The ET155 is also adapted to the new GEM subrack.
  • New Transcoders and Echo Cancellers
    • New hardware with increased capacity adapted to the new
    • GEM subrack.

The main benefits of the new AXE hardware and software are many but this chapter tries to capture the very essence of it.

The main benefits are:
  • Increased capacity
    • This means that customers can build larger switches and in that way decrease their costs for the network (each site costs money in many different ways).
  • Increased reliability
    • This means that Ericsson's customers can get a more reliable network with a minimum time needed for software maintenance. A more reliable network will also increase the revenue in the customer’s networks.
  • Reduced cost of ownership
    • As hardware shrinks, power consumption and cooling requirements go down as well. This means reduced cost of ownership. The number of board types have also been decreased so spare part stocks can be reduced meaning more money for other things than spare parts.
  • Migration to 3G
    • Ericsson's ENGINE concept as well as next generation mobile systems mean openness to next generation networks.
    • By upgrading AXE with the new hardware, a path to second generation network is secured.
  • Shorter time to RFI (Ready For Installation)
    • Reduced size and better standardisation of nodes makes the order process within Ericsson simpler. It is almost that “one size fits all”.

Ericsson AXE Exchange Terminal ET4-1


© Ericsson
  • Integrated with AXE
  • Quick installation
  • Good cable management
  • Simplifies upgrade from PDH to SDH
  • Supports both ETSI and ANSI standards
  • Uniform Ericsson design

Securing future network expansion

ET4-1 provides a PDH transmission interface to AXE 810 nodes with reduced footprint and less cabling compared to previous solutions.

Using ET4-1 results in easy reconfiguration and modernization of the network since it is possible to equip the AXE 810 node with only optical ET 155 interface from the start.

The Exchange Terminal (ET) is an important component in the AXE system. It provides the means by which the switch connects to the outside PDH transport network or an electrical SDH/ SONET access.

Thus, the ET can be seen as a mandatory product for all AXE nodes as it forms a substantial part of the switch hardware.

The ET4-1 is used for connecting an AXE 810 node equipped with ET155 to PDH access as an alternative to equipping the AXE node with ETC for E1 or T1.

The benefits of ET4-1 are reduced footprint, less cabling and subracks, and enhanced flexibility for the operator to mix PDH and SDH/ SONET.

© Ericsson

ET4-1 also facilitates easy node reconfiguration when the customer migrates from PDH to SDH/SONET without any hardware impact on the AXE node. ET4-1 can be used with ETSI (E1) or ANSI (T1) PDH access standard.

All nodes equipped with optical ET155 can make use of the ET4-1 to easy connect to nodes equipped with E1 or T1 interface or electrical SDH/SONET access. The ET4-1 is implemented in BYB 501 building practice.

Some features of ET4-1

  • ET4-1 is a multiplexor for ET155 STM-1 optical (SDH) to 63 E1 electrical (PDH), alternatively ET155 OC-3 (SONET) optical to 84 T1 electrical (PDH).
  • ET4-1 provides electrical to optical conversion on SDH/SONET 155 Mbit/s level. Integrated CCF reduces the cabling to support simpler and faster node installation.
  • CCF includes DC barriers.
  • ET4-1 is monitored by AXE.
    ET4-1 can be physically placed near the transmission equipment or near
    the DDF.
  • The same kind of connector is used both for coaxial and pair cables. The
    connector is of “push-pull” type; i.e no tools are needed for inserting or releasing the connector.
  • ET4-1 is a “plug-and-play” product.
    • No configuration is needed.

Flexible interface

The ET4-1 provides the option to connect many types of physical interfaces to the new node such as:
  • 155 Mbit/s electrical interface, coaxial pair SDH/SONET
  • 2 Mbit/s twisted pair cables ETSI PDH
  • 1.5 Mbit/s twisted pair cables ANSI
  • 2 Mbit/s/1.5Mbit/s coaxial cables PDH
  • 155 Mbit/s optical interface SDH/SONET

AXE 810 - Acronyms and Abbreviations
  • 100Base-TX
    • Standard for 100 Mbits/s Ethernet
  • 10Base-T
    • Standard for 10 Mbits/s Ethernet over twisted copper cables
  • AAL
    • ATM Adaptation Layer
  • ALI
    • ATM Link Interface
  • ANSI
    • American National Standards Institute
  • APG
    • Adjunct Processor Group
  • APT
    • ABC class for the switching system in AXE
  • APZ
    • ABC class denoting the control system in AXE
  • ASIC
    • Application Specific Integrated Circuit
  • AST-DR V3
    • Announcement Service Terminal – Digital RAM, version 3
  • ATM
    • Asynchronous Transfer Mode
  • AXD 301
    • ATM switching system from Ericsson
  • AXE 810
    • Name for the new AXE released in 2001.
  • BSC
    • Base Station Controller (node in GSM).
  • BYB
    • ABC class for building practice.
  • BYB 202
    • Building practice based on the blue cabinets. Released in 1986.
  • BYB 501
    • Building practice based on the grey/brown cabinets.
  • CBC
    • Central Building Clock
  • CCD
    • Conference Call Device
  • CCF
    • Connection and Conversion Field
  • CDM
    • Clock Distribution Magazine
  • CLM
    • Clock Module
  • CP
    • Central Processor
  • CPU
    • Central Processor Unit
  • DAT
    • Digital Audio Tape
  • DDF
    • Digital Distribution Frame
  • DL
    • Digital Link
  • DL2
    • 2:nd generation DL, 32 channels
  • DL3
    • 3:rd generation DL, 512channels
  • DL34
    • Flexible DL, 128-2096 channels
  • DL5
    • 5:th generation DL, 8192 channels
  • DLEB
    • Digital Link multiplexer for Existing equipment Board
  • DLHB
    • Digital Link Handling Board
  • DRAM
    • Dynamic Random Access Memory
  • DSP
    • Digital Signal Processor
  • ECP
    • Echo Cancellers in Pool
  • EDGE
    • Enhance Data rate for Global Evolution
  • EMRP
    • Extension Module Regional Processor
    • A network from Ericsson based on ATM switching and AXE in combination.
  • EPSB
    • Ethernet Packet Switch Board
  • ET
    • Exchange Terminal
  • ET155
    • Exchange Terminal for 155 Mbit/s
  • GDM
    • Generic Device Magazine
  • GEM
    • Generic Ericsson Magazine
  • GPRS
    • General Packet Radio Service
  • GPS
    • Global Positioning System
  • GS
    • Group Switch
  • GSM
    • Global System for Mobile Communication
  • HLR
    • Home Locating Register
  • HWM 1.3 
    • The APT version based on BYB 501 built with GDM subracks.
  • HWM 1.4
    • The APT version released before AXE 810 (ET 155 was introduced)
  • ICF
    • Incoming Connection Field
  • IP
    • Internet Protocol
  • IPN
    • Inter Platform Network
  • IPNA
    • IPN Access board
  • IPNX
    • IPN switch board
  • IPU
    • Instruction Processor Unit
  • ISA
    • Industry Standard Architecture
  • ITU
    • International Telecommunications Union
  • LRB
    • Local Reference Board
  • MIPS
    • Million Instruction Per Second
  • MSC
    • Mobile Services Switching Centre
  • OSE
    • Delta Operating system from ENEA systems
  • PCI
    • Peripheral Component Interconnect
  • PDH
    • Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy
  • POWC
    • Power Control Unit
  • RCM
    • Reference Clock Module
  • RFI
    • Ready For Installation
  • RP
    • Regional Processor
  • RPBC
    • Regional Processor Bus Converter
  • RPH
    • Regional Processor Handler
  • RPI
    • Regional Processor Integrated
  • RPP
    • PCI based Regional Processor
  • SCB-RP
    • Support and Connection Board with RP
  • SCP
    • Service Control Point
    • Synchronous DRAM
    • Synchronous Optical Network
  • SPU
    • Signal Processor Unit
  • SRAM
    • Static Random Access Memory
  • STC
    • Signalling Terminal Central
  • STP
    • Signalling Transfer Point
  • STR
    • Signalling Terminal Remote
  • STU
    • Store Unit (memory board in CP)
  • TCP
    • Transmission Control Protocol
  • TDMA
    • US standard mobile system.
  • V5
    • Interface to access nodes (e.g. ENGINE Access Ramp).
  • XDB
    • Distributed Switch Board